Statistical analyses will not be sound if methods are not replicable.

A 2010 study of nursing journals found that 79% of recommendations by reviewers were influenced by grammar and writing style (Shattel, et al., 2010). Now that you have completed your preparations, you’re ready to spend an hour or so reading carefully through the manuscript. "Offer clear suggestions for how the authors can address the concerns raised. In other words, if you’re going to raise a problem, provide a solution." After drafting these two paragraphs, you should be in a position to decide whether this manuscript is seriously flawed and should be rejected . Or whether it is publishable in principle and merits a detailed, careful read through. If you find a major problem, note your reasoning and clear supporting evidence . It will help you form an initial impression of the paper and get a sense of whether your eventual recommendation will be to accept or reject the paper.


The conclusions should reflect upon the aims – whether they were achieved or not – and, just like the aims, should not be surprising. If the conclusions are not evidence-based, it’s appropriate to ask for them to be re-written. These give enough detail so that other researchers are able to carry out the same research. For example, equipment used or sampling methods should all be described in detail so that others could follow the same steps. Where methods are not detailed enough, it’s usual to ask for the methods section to be revised. These are used to make sure observed trends are not due to chance and that the same experiment could be repeated by other researchers – and result in the same outcome. Statistical analyses will not be sound if methods are not replicable.

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Fusar-Poli P, Allen P, Bhattacharyya S. Modulation of effective connectivity during emotional processing by Delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Acute effects of a single, oral dose of d9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol administration in healthy volunteers.

Under certain situations, breastfeeding might not be possible, unsuitable or inadequate, which warrants an interruption or cessation in breastfeeding. In the United States, only 75% of infants initiate breastfeeding from birth; however, by the age of three months, 67%, or 2.7 million, of them rely on infant formula for some portion of their nutrition . Among new mothers, the six-month “any breastfeeding” rate for the total U.S. population is 43%, with only 13% meeting the recommendation to breastfeed exclusively for six months . Authors may make the case that a topic hasn’t been investigated in several years and that new research is required. This point is only valid if researchers can point to recent developments in data gathering techniques or to research in indirectly related fields that suggest the topic needs revisiting. Obviously, where older research is seminal or where aspects of the methodology rely upon it, then it is perfectly appropriate for authors to cite some older papers.


Thus, breast milk is widely recognized as a biological fluid required for optimal infant growth and development. Recently, studies have further suggested that breast milk mitigates infant programming of late metabolic diseases, particularly protecting against obesity and type 2 diabetes . Briefly, this paradigm involves pairing a neutral context, the conditioned stimulus , with an aversive unconditioned stimulus , a mild foot shock.

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The CB1R is an inhibitory Gi/o protein-coupled receptor that is mainly localized to nerve terminals, and is expressed on both γ-aminobutryic acid-ergic and glutamatergic neurons. ECBs are fatty acid derivatives that are synthesized on demand in response to neuronal depolarization and Ca2+ DotBig forex Broker influx, via cleavage of membrane phospholipids. The primary mechanism by which eCBs regulate synaptic function is retrograde signaling, wherein eCBs produced by depolarization of the postsynaptic neuron activate presynaptic CB1Rs, leading to inhibition of neurotransmitter release .

This helps developing researchers improve their work and explains to the editor why you felt the manuscript should not be published. Where manuscripts have serious flaws you should not spend any time polishing the review you’ve drafted or give detailed advice on presentation. If recommending rejection or major revision, state this clearly in your review (and see the next section, ‘When recommending rejection’). Where improvements are needed, a recommendation for major or minor revision is typical. You may also choose to state whether you opt in or out of the post-revision review too.

  • Lactoferrin and lysozyme prevent the spread of potentially pathogenic bacteria, preventing illnesses in infants.
  • Cannabis sativa, a species of the Cannabis genus of flowering plants, is one of the most frequently used illicit recreational substances in Western culture.
  • Most probiotic strains added to formula have been isolated from food or fecal infant microbiota.
  • Today we have posted our review of the Strelets set of 17th Century Austrian Cuirassiers.
  • As you’re reading through the manuscript for a second time, you’ll need to keep in mind the argument’s construction, the clarity of the language and content.
  • Finally, El Batsh et al. reported that repeated CBD doses over 21 days, that is chronic as opposed to acute treatment, facilitated conditioned freezing.

Further studies are also required to establish the efficacy of CBD when administered in chronic dosing, as relatively few relevant studies exist, with mixed results, including both anxiolytic and anxiogenic outcomes. However, bovine milk contains higher levels of fat, minerals and protein compared to human breast milk. Therefore, cow milk must be skimmed and diluted to more closely resemble human breast milk composition . Cow-milk-based infant formula contains added vegetable oils, vitamins, minerals and iron for consumption by most healthy full term infants. Cannabidiol is a phytocannabinoid constituent of Cannabis sativa that lacks the psychoactive effects of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol . CBD has broad therapeutic properties across a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, stemming from diverse central nervous system actions . In recent years, CBD has attracted increasing interest as a potential anxiolytic treatment [13–15].

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The purpose of this article is to nutritional information on breast milk and infant formulas to reinforce the importance of breastfeeding, while also understanding the uses of infant formula. Mothers’ own milk is considered to be the best source of infant nutrition . Extensive evidence has shown that breast milk contains a variety of bioactive agents that modify the function of the gastrointestinal tract and the immune system, as well as in brain development.

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Guimaraes FS, Chiaretti TM, Graeff FG, Zuardi AW. Antianxiety effect of cannabidiol in the elevated plus-maze. Hsiao YT, Yi PL, Li CL, Chang FC. Effect of cannabidiol on sleep disruption induced by the repeated combination tests consisting of open field and elevated plus-maze in rats. Silveira Filho NG, Tufik S. Comparative effects between cannabidiol and diazepam on neophobia, food intake and conflict behavior.

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By now you will have a deep understanding of the paper’s content – and you may have some concerns about plagiarism. This section is usually no more than a few paragraphs and may be presented as part of the results and discussion, or in a separate section.

The purpose of this review is to assess evidence from current preclinical, clinical, and epidemiological studies pertaining to the potential risks and benefits of CBD as a treatment for anxiety disorders. Breast milk is the best nutrition for infant growth and development, and is also rich in antibodies that provide the first source of adaptive immunity in a newborn’s intestinal tract. In preterm or low birth weight newborns, a mother’s own milk is the first choice for preterm infants; when it is unavailable, donor breast milk is considered as the next best choice. For healthy newborns whose mothers are unable to provide sufficient breast milk, the current option of choice is infant formula.

We case our eye over the options costing more than $2500 but less than $4000, to find the best all-rounder. As part of our ongoing of the EOS R6 Mark II we’ve shot our studio scene and rolling shutter tests, and added analysis of image quality and video performance. Today we have our review of the Linear-A set entitled Army of Athens for the Peloponnesian War. One of the recent releases from Linear-A returned to their theme of the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BCE, and now we have completed our review of that set, which depicts Persian Cavalry. Ancient Rome has long been a popular subject for figures, but this time we go back much further than usual to look at their pre-republican era warriors via the Linear-A set of Roman Army under King Servius Tullius. It has been a very long time since we were able to announce a piece of good news, but today we have a new set announcement over on the News page. It may have taken us several years, but we have finally added a proper search function to the site.

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